In this argument the author reaches the conclusion that.... The basis for this recommendation is that.... An additional reason given in support of this recommendation is that...(The author cites...as an example in support of this recommendation). At first glance, the author's argument appears to be somewhat convincing, but further reflection reveals that it omits some important concerns that should be addressed to substantiate the argument.
In the first place,
In the second place,
In the third place,
In conclusion, the author fails to provide adequate justification for.... As it stands, the reasoning does not constitute a logical argument in favor of the recommendation. To strengthen the argument, the author would have to provide evidence to prove that.... To better assess the argument, we need additional detailed information about...so that we can establish the conclusion whether....
The issue of whether...is a complex and controversial one. Different people hold different views due to their respective angles. On the one hand, as is well-known and has often been advocated, ...; on the other hand, others probably insist that.... We do not have to look very far to see the valid standpoint of this matter. In the following analysis, I would like to reason and provide evidence favoring the former one and refuting the latter one. (The complex nature of the above issue requires us to consider it on a case-by-case basis. In my point of view, whether one has advantages over the other depends on the specific circumstances.)
In the first place, the important reason that can be presented to develop my position is that.... A good example may be found in the case that.... Under this circumstance/therefore, it is obvious that....
In addition, there is another reason for me to choose the former statement/consider the latter statement to be wrong. The reason is not far to seek:.... To illustrate, a case in point in this respect is that....
Admittedly, there is no denying that...in some conditions. As we know, .... However, this alone does not constitute a sufficient support to.... (When...of X and Y are carefully compared, the most striking conclusion is obvious. To sum up, while...may be true in exceptional cases, I agree that....)
Consequently, I advocate that..., because: (1) ...; (2) .... Due to the above-mentioned reasons, which sometimes intertwine to form an organic whole and thus become more persuasive, we may safely arrive at the conclusion I support.
The author commits a fallacy of causal oversimplification. The line of the reasoning is that because A occurred before B, the former event is responsible for the latter. (The author uses the positive correlation between A and B to establish causality. However, the fact that A coincides with B does not necessarily prove that A caused B.) But this is fallacious reasoning unless other possible causal explanations have been considered and ruled out. For example, perhaps C is the cause of these events or perhaps B is caused by D.
[编辑] 第二宗罪 Insufficient-sample
The evidence the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it. One example is logically unsounded to establish a general conclusion (The statistics from only a few recent years are not necessarily a good indicator of future trends), unless it can be shown that A1 is representative of all A. It is possible that.... In fact, in face of such limited evidence, the conclusion that B is completely unwarranted.
[编辑] 第三宗罪: 错误类比 (based on a false analogy )<横向>
The argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to B in all respects. This assumption is weak, since although there are points of comparison between A and B, there is much dissimilarity as well. For example, A..., however, B.... Thus, it is likely much more difficult for B to do....
[编辑] 第四宗罪 all things are equal<纵向>
The author commits the fallacy of “all things are equal”. The fact that happened two years ago is not a sound evidence to draw a conclusion that.... The author assumes without justification that the background conditions have remained the same at different times or at different locations. However, it is not clear in this argument whether the current conditions at AA are the same as they used to be two years ago. Thus it is impossible to conclude that....
[编辑] 第五宗罪 Either-Or choice
The author assumes that AA and BB are mutually exclusive alternatives and there is no room for a middle ground. However, the author provides no reason for imposing an either-or choice. Common sense tells us that adjusting both AA and BB might produce better results.
[编辑] 第六宗罪 survey is doubtful
The poll cited by the author is too vague to be informative. The claim does not indicate who conducted the poll, who responded, or when, where and how the poll was conducted. (Lacking information about the number of people surveyed and the number of respondents, it is impossible to access the validity of the results. For example, if 200 persons were surveyed but only 2 responded, the conclusion that...would be highly suspect. Because the argument offers no evidence that would rule out this kind of interpretations,) Until these questions are answered, the results of the survey are worthless as evidence for the conclusion.
[编辑] 第七宗罪 gratuitous assumption
The author falsely depends on gratuitous assumption that.... However, no evidence is stated in the argument to support this assumption. In fact, this is not necessarily the case. For example, it is more likely that.... Therefore, this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility.